miércoles, 21 de abril de 2010

El "pecado original" del Derecho del Trabajo

La iniciativa que pretende ampliar el postnatal a seis meses es un ejemplo más de la falta de coherencia y de la ausencia de una visión sistémica sobre la protección de los trabajadores y trabajadoras con responsabilidades familiares. En efecto, esta iniciativa es un mero parche que pretende mantener a flote un mecanismo de protección a la maternidad que hace tiempo está condenado a hundirse irremediablemente por estar construido en torno a un paradigma que, a vista de los hombres y mujeres del siglo XXI, tiende a adolecer cada día más de un vicio de legitimidad social.

Es lo que yo llamo “el pecado original” del Derecho del Trabajo, esto es, haber construido un sistema de protección legal a favor de los trabajadores que parte de la base una división sexista de roles. En este esquema, heredero de una concepción conservadora de la familia y de la negación de la mujer como ciudadana, le corresponde al hombre el rol de proveedor (trabajador a tiempo completo) y a la mujer el rol de cuidadora de los hijos, del hogar y, marginalmente, de trabajadora.

¿Cómo se comprueba la sobrevivencia de este modelo? Muy fácil, basta hacer un breve recorrido por las normas del Código que protegen la maternidad, para comprobar desde el título, que todos los derechos que allí se reconocen, salvo uno, son de titularidad exclusiva de la mujer. La ley desconoce que la maternidad y la paternidad son una tarea vital que involucra por igual a hombres y mujeres, así como que los niños tienen el derecho a poder recibir el cariño y los cuidados tanto de su padre y de su madre para poder crecer sanos y felices.

¿Qué logran, por tanto, propuestas como la ampliación del postnatal? En mi opinión, únicamente agravar la ya desmejorada situación laboral de las mujeres, quienes conforman uno de los colectivos más afectados por la discriminación. Esto se proyecta en menores remuneraciones, peor situación previsional y en el desaprovechamiento de una fuerza laboral que posee, en general, un mejor nivel educacional y profesional que los hombres. Un dato vergonzoso es que Chile, ahora socio de la OCDE, sigue presentando la menor tasa de participación laboral femenina en América Latina, eso sin pensar en compararnos con naciones europeas para no agravar lo indecoroso de la situación para un país que aspira a ser desarrollado.

Sin perjuicio de lo anterior, la actual legislación laboral persiste en la discriminación del hombre al atarlo a un rol atávico de mero proveedor e impedirle una participación más activa frente a sus responsabilidades familiares. A su vez, llama la atención lo alejado de la realidad en que están los gestores de políticas públicas y legislativas, pues desconocen el sentir y la forma de vivir el trabajo y la familia por parte de las nuevas generaciones de hombres y mujeres, persistiendo en una realidad social desfasada culturalmente.

El gran desafío de nuestro tiempo debe ser la construcción de una sociedad más justa que ponga término a siglos de exclusión de la mujer como ciudadana y trabajadora, sentando las bases de una nueva realidad familiar centrada en el afecto y los cuidados recíprocos de todos sus integrantes. Hay que avanzar entonces en reformular la normativa laboral en favor de los trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares y no perder de vista su mayor ventaja: un trabajador realizado en su dimensión personal es un mejor trabajador.

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No es posible sustraerse hoy en día al gran avance que se ha tenido en materia de derechos fundamentales. Sin embargo, todavía existen sectores altamente vulnerables a los que la debida protección de ellos virtualmente no existe. Uno de los paradigmas de ello son precismente los trabajadores. Todas estas leyes supuestamente protectoras tiene mucho de demagogia y poco de protección. El aumento del postnatal sin un desarrollo cultural e integral de lo que significa ello en relación con la trabajadora madre y con el respectivo padre, presuntivametne también trabajador, como protección de la maternidad, y en definitiva de su derecho fundamental, sólo es un beneficio social sin asidero alguno, asimilable a los bonos marzo o bodas de oro, que no son más que pan para hoy y hambre para mañana.

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